His reign is portrayed as a time of unprecedented peace, power, and prosperity for Israel. An artist's depiction of a royal palace in the Kingdom of Israel. A History of Ancient Israel and Judah, Louisville KY: Westminster John Knox Press, 1986, Thiele, Edwin R. The Mysterious Numbers of the Hebrew Kings, Grand Rapids, MI: Kregel Academic & Professional; Reprint edition, 1994. The deportees were scattered throughout the East. The events took place in the 8th century BC. (Crossing of sun over Mars as Tamuz would be 10 July 997 BCE.). 406-410 for discussion of archaeological significance of Shomron (, Considered to be a contemporary of the Assyrian King, Prise de Jérusalem par Hérode le Grand.jpg, About Israel - The Information Center About Israel, https://religion.wikia.org/wiki/Kingdom_of_Israel_(Samaria)?oldid=125089, (also called Eshba'al or Ashba'al or Ishbaal). The notion of kingship was for a long time resisted, viewed as putting a man a position of reverence and power reserved for God. From this point on, there would be two kingdoms of Hebrews: in the north - Israel, and in the south - Judah. His assassin, Pekah, took the throne around 735 B.C.E., just in time to face the return of the Assyrians. List of the Kings of Israel, Judah, and Assyria. The kingdom of Israel was formed after the breakup of the united kingdom of Israel and Judah. The capital fell to an Assyrian siege in 722. Jacob eventually had twelve sons who later became the twelve tribes of Israel, most predominantly Judah and Benjamin. The 20 Davidic Monarchs and the Southern Kingdom of Israel . However, he faced several rebellions, in which elements of the northern tribes joined. Soon after seizing power, Jehu found himself in trouble with than Elisha's other recently anointed king, Hazael of Damascus. He had golden calves erected for the people to represent their "god." Its capital was the city of Jerusalem. When war with Damascus broke out again, and Ahab died battle at Ramoth-Gilead. Pekah was assassinated by Hoshea. After this, David consolidated the monarchical government in Jerusalem. In declaring "Here are your 'gods' (Elohim), O Israel" was Jeroboam I truly denying Yahweh/Elohim, or was he merely declaring that the God of Israel (Elohim) could be worshiped just as well at Dan and Bethel as in Jerusalem? However, when King Asa of Judah influenced the Arameans to break with Baasha, Israel lost fertile lands northwest of the Sea of Galilee as well as militarily significant southern high ground. This article abides by terms of the Creative Commons CC-by-sa 3.0 License (CC-by-sa), which may be used and disseminated with proper attribution. The first begins with the rebellion of Jeroboam and ends with the ascension of the Omrian dynasty. According to the Bible, the united kingdom of Solomon was divided after his death in ca.931.His son Rehoboam, we are told, increased the taxes, and provoked a rebellion of the ten northern tribes. These acts became known as the way of Jeroboam or the sins of Jeroboam. The conflict between Israel and Judah was resolved when Jehoshaphat, King of Judah, allied himself with the house of Ahab through marriage. People from these tribes including the Reubenite leader, were taken captive and resettled in the region of the Habor river system. For this period, most historians follow either of the older chronologies established by William F. Albright or Edwin R. Thiele, or the newer chronologies of Gershon Galil and Kenneth Kitchen, all of which are shown below. These and later arrivals at times intermarried with the remaining Israelites to form the mixed-blood people later known as Samaritans. Kingdom of Israel “Kingdom of Israel” refers both to the united kingdom under Saul, David, and Solomon and to the northern kingdom of Israel, which separated from the united kingdom after the death of Solomon. In this scenario, none of Israel's kings does the right thing. Thus, around 720 BCE, after two centuries, the kingdom of the ten tribes came to an end. Shechem was the first capital of the Kingdom of Israel. To cite this article click here for a list of acceptable citing formats.The history of earlier contributions by wikipedians is accessible to researchers here: The history of this article since it was imported to New World Encyclopedia: Note: Some restrictions may apply to use of individual images which are separately licensed. Ishbosheth remained king of Israel, although now a smaller version of itself. Solomon’s son King Rehoboam gets only a small part of his father’s kingdom. When Israel refuses to change her ways, the prophetic doom pronounced by these oracles comes to pass in the form of the final Assyrian victory over Israel in 722 B.C.E.. After Saul's death in battle with the Philistines, David was anointed king by the tribe of Judah at Herbron, where he remained for seven years. The Bible describes the next king, Shlomo, or Solomon, as a leader of great wisdom who expanded the United Kingdom into a great empire and constructed a glorious national Temple in Jerusalem. During the three-year siege of Samaria by the Assyrians, Shalmaneser V died and was succeeded by Sargon II of Assyria, who himself records the capture of that city thus: "Samaria I looked at, I captured; 27,280 men who dwelt in it I carried away" into Assyria. The first, that of Yahweh detailed in the Hebrew Bible, and the second the cult of Baal as detailed in the so-called "Baal cycle" discovered at Ugarit. Just as important, they must not continue the "sin of [the first] Jeroboam," namely to support the Israelite shrines at Bethel and Dan with their golden calf statues. For the first sixty years, the kings of Judah tried to re-establish their authority over the northern kingdom, and there was perpetual war between them. The author of the Book of Kings presents the history of the Northern Kingdom primarily as a manifestation of the struggle between the One-God principle and idolatry. Israel was initially at a disadvantage against Judah due a lack of a standing army and also because of internal strife. Jeroboam I, who ruled from 928 B.C. David chose the Canaanite city of Jerusalem as his capital and is said to have had the Ark of the Covenant moved there. Kingdom of Israel: Extremist Rabbis Dream of Jewish Monarchy, With a Special Role for non-Jews . The Northern Kingdom is thought to have encompassed as many as 9,400 square miles, and as few as 2,400 or less. The genealogy of the kings of Israel, along with the kings of Judah. Our primary sources for the history of the Northern Kingdom are the biblical books of Samuel, Chronicles, and especially Kings, together with occasional historical references in the prophets and other biblical books. [7] Rehoboam fled to Jerusalem,[8][9] and in 930 BCE (some date it in 920 BCE), Jeroboam was proclaimed king over all Israel at Shechem. In the Hebrew Bible, the Kingdom of Israel has been referred to as "House of Joseph". This article accompanies episode 106 (“2 Samuel: Israel’s Kingdom and the Mark of the Beast”) of the podcast “Pictures of the End.” You can listen to the entire episode here. The Divided Kingdom of Israel (Sandra Richter) Watch later. The Great Kingdom of Israel or Kingdom of Israel (in Hebrew: ממלכת יִשְׂרָאֵל, Mamlekt Yiśraˀel, Modern Hebrew: Mamlekhet Yisra'el, Tiberian vocalization: Mamléḵeṯ Yisrael) was an authoritarian monarchy that existed between 1046 BC and 430 BC. Pekah allied with Damascus against both Assyria and Judah. See Yohanan Aharoni, et al., The Macmillan Bible Atlas, Macmillan Publishing: New York, 1993, p. 94.; and Amihai Mazar, The Archaeology of the Land of the Bible: 10,000 – 586 B.C.E, New York: Doubleday, 1992, p. 404, see Pp. Today, they are popularly known as the Lost ten tribes of Israel. The recorded history differs from this fable: No record exists of the Assyrians having exiled people from Dan, Asher, Issachar, Zebulun or western Manasseh. These authors tolerate no compromise with religious pluralism. Tiglath-Pilesar also captured the territory of Naphtali and the city of Janoah in Ephraim and an Assyrian governor was placed over the region of Naphtali. The rest are in Arabic, Russian, Yiddish, or one of several foreign languages. He embarked on successful military campaigns against Israel's enemies, creating more secure borders. According to the first book of Samuel, due to his disobedience to God, Saul's reign was curtailed and his kingdom given to another dynasty. Kingdom of Bahrain: Königreich {n} Bahrain: hist. After the death of Hazael, Assyria moved against Damascus again. After Ahaz paid tribute to Tiglath-Pileser[15] Tiglath-Pileser sacked Damascus and Israel, annexing Aram[16] and territory of the tribes of Reuben, Gad and Manasseh in Gilead including the desert outposts of Jetur, Naphish and Nodab. in accordance with New World Encyclopedia standards. Whether or not one accepts the spiritual veracity of the biblical version of providential history, it can hardly be denied that this account favors Judah over Israel, and that it presents the viewpoint of the Jerusalem priesthood at the expense of the monarchs and religious institutions of the Northern Kingdom. Credit is due under the terms of this license that can reference both the New World Encyclopedia contributors and the selfless volunteer contributors of the Wikimedia Foundation. This, together with the advantage of a greater population and better natural resources than landlocked Judah, enabled him to strengthen Israel's position. Israel's territory was now little more than the district surrounding the capital of Samaria. 2 Chronicles 30:1-11[18] explicitly mentions northern Israelites who had been spared by the Assyrians in particular people of Dan, Ephraim, Manasseh, Asher and Zebulun and how members of the latter three returned to worship at the Temple in Jerusalem during the reign of Hezekiah. However because even the kings of this pro-Yahwist dynasty allow the worship of the Canaanite goddess Ashera and refuse to pull down the bull calf statues at Dan and Bethel, they too are judged as evil in God's sight. His son, Pekahiah, ruled only briefly. Some 27,000 of its inhabitants were reportedly deported, and the district of Samaria became an Assyrian province. Israel's communication system is one of the best in the Middle East. But this alone is not enough. The northern kingdom continued to be called the Kingdom of Israel or Israel, while the southern kingdom was called the kingdom of Judah. The Assyrians brought various eastern peoples to colonize lands vacated by the deportees. Under Jehu's son Jehoahaz, Israel was reduced to a vassal state of Damascus. ][12] King Omri built his capital in Samaria (16:24), which continued as such until the destruction of the Kingdom by the Assyrians (2 Kings 17:5). In this belief, he was tragically mistaken. According to the Book of Samuel, he ruled with God's approval for only two years, due to his disobedience in failing to complete the slaughter of the Amalekites. Jeroboam's son Zachariah was assassinated by Shallum, beginning a period of instability and decline. These kingdoms remained separate states for over two hundred years. New World Encyclopedia writers and editors rewrote and completed the Wikipedia article However, the historicity of this claim has come under challenge by recent scholarship and archeology, which consider it impossible that so vast and rich an empire as is described in the Bible could have existed given the small population base that in reality existed in Solomon's day. After the revolt at Shechem at first only the tribe of Judah remained loyal to the house of David. Traditionally, the nation of Israel formed as the Israelites left Egypt during the Exodus and conquered Canaan under Joshua's leadership. The prophet Elisha went so far as to anoint the Syrian leader Hazael to punish Israel's alleged idolatry and instigated a coup de etat against Joram by a military leader, Jehu. [1][2] It has also been referred to as "Israel in Samaria".[3]. The history of the Northern Kingdom will be divided into four segments. This half of the country became the northern kingdom containing its capital Samaria and the other ten tribes. It is recorded that Jeroboam built two places of worship, one at Bethel and one at far northern Dan, to be an alternative to the Temple at Jerusalem. The Northern Kingdom, also called the "Kingdom of Israel" after the death of Solomon, was a monarchy consisting of ten of the twelve tribes of Israel who revolted against King Rehoboam, successor to Solomon.This revolt happened in 975 BC (according to James Ussher) or 930 BC (according to Edwin R. Thiele).The Northern Kingdom lasted until 721-2 BC, at which time King Shalmaneser V of … The tribe of Judah emerges as the dominant southern tribe through its associations with David and Jerusalem. For information on the Southern Kingdom, please consult the article on the Kingdom of Judah. In the biblical account, the Hebrew people, were led by the Patriarchs and later by Judges prior to the establishment of the kingdom. The second begins with Omri and ends with the coup by Jehu. The Israelites formed their capital in the city of Samaria, and the Judaeans kept their capital in Jerusalem. Jerusalem was the capital of the United Kingdom. The first begins with the rebellion of Jeroboam and ends with the ascension of the Omrian dynasty. The rule of Jeroboam's tribe, Ephraim, became unpopular; and his son Nadab (913) was slain by the usurper Baasha, of the tribe Issachar (911). Despite his friendship with Jerusalem, Ahab's marriage to Jezebel and his reported willingness to honor the Phoenician deity Baal brought religious strife with Yahwist elements centering on the powerful itinerant prophets Elijah and Elisha, whose opposition eventually proved fatal to the promise of the Omrian dynasty. Shopping. An alternative theory based on recent archaeological evidence suggests a more gradual evolution of a national identity as semi-nomadic Hebrew-Canaanite clans affiliated and became the nation of Israel. Israelite kingdom of Israel and Judah, during the reigns of Saul, David and Solomon, c. 1050-930 BCE However, other writers estimate that only a fifth of the population (about 40,000) were actually resettled out of the area during the two deportation periods under Tiglath-Pileser III and Sargon II. Critical scholars wonder if the bull calf statue was the real issue, or whether it was more likely one of control. "Northern Kingdom" redirects here. The Hebrew people who were settled in Canaan after the Exodus met with frequent clashes from enemy tribes based around their new areas of residence. For hundreds of years, Israel was a unified nation under King Saul, Israel’s first king. The third begins with Jehu and ends with Menahem. Tribe of Judah. Tap to unmute. Israel reached the zenith of its power after the ascension of Jeroboam II (c. 783), who recaptured substantial Syrian and transjordanian territories and made Israel an even greater power than it had been in the days of the Omrian dynasty. There are no contemporary extra-biblical references to the leaders of the United Kingdom. The Divided Kingdom of Israel (Sandra Richter) - YouTube. (1 Kings 12:26-29), Ahab allowed the cult worship of Baal to become an acceptable religion of the kingdom. Ten tribes formed the northern kingdom, with headquarters at Shechem in Samaria. Jeroboam, who was not of the Davidic line, was sent for from Egypt by the malcontents. They were known as Israel, or the northern kingdom, or Ephraim, since Ephraim was the dominant group among them. Descriptions of the deportation of people from Reuben, Gad, Manasseh in Gilead, Ephraim and Naphtali indicate that only a portion of these tribes were deported and the places to which they were deported are known locations given in the accounts. For the following eighty years, there was no open war between them, and, for the most part, they were in friendly alliance, co-operating against their common … He ended the fratricidal war with Judah and established a friendship with the Phoenician power of Tyre, sealed by a marriage between his son Ahab and the Tyrian princess Jezebel. After hi… to 907 B.C., was the founder of the kingdom, which, according to legend, united ten of the 12 tribes of Israel and Judah, and which occupied greater and more fertile territory than the southern kingdom of Judah. Against Judah he had some success, but the Assyrians succeeded in annexing the Galilee. In Art of Conquest they gain the ability of invisible Priests.They are not seen in any of … The biblical writers see the hand of God in such events as Jehu's brutal murder of Ahab's family and the mass slaughter of the prophet-priests of Baal by Elijah and later again by Jehu. The first capital of Northern Kingdom was Shechem (1 Kings 12:25), then Tirza (14:17), and finally Samaria (16:24), which endured until the destruction of the kingdom by the Assyrians if(typeof __ez_fad_position != 'undefined'){__ez_fad_position('div-gpt-ad-newworldencyclopedia_org-large-mobile-banner-1-0')};if(typeof __ez_fad_position != 'undefined'){__ez_fad_position('div-gpt-ad-newworldencyclopedia_org-large-mobile-banner-1-0_1')};if(typeof __ez_fad_position != 'undefined'){__ez_fad_position('div-gpt-ad-newworldencyclopedia_org-large-mobile-banner-1-0_2')}; .large-mobile-banner-1-multi-167{border:none !important;display:block !important;float:none;line-height:0px;margin-bottom:15px !important;margin-left:0px !important;margin-right:0px !important;margin-top:15px !important;min-height:250px;min-width:300px;text-align:center !important;}. His erection of these sites, designed to create national cohesion and provide convenient access for pilgrims, earned him the enduring enmity of the Jerusalem priesthood and the biblical authors. These are histories with a religious agenda and are not accepted uncritically by historians. Omri established a powerful dynasty and made Israel into a major regional power. Israel was a kingdom of priests, and now the church is a kingdom of priests. Then, after much thought and deliberation, he anointed Saul, a tribesman from the tribe of Benjamin, as the first King of a … He built an impressive new capital, the strategically located town of Samaria in central Palestine, increasing his control of overland trade and providing good access to the Mediterranean. Amos emphasizes the need for a religion based on moral principles and social justice, while Hosea calls on Israel to abandon her "adulterous" worship of other gods and to return to Yahweh, her true and loving husband. Despite the biblical portrayal of a vast united empire under King Solomon, Jerusalem's control of the territory of Israel outside of Judah was minimal except for some amount of taxation and forced labor. The third begins with Jehu and ends with Menahem. Baasha moved the capital from Schechem to Tirzah and made a treaty with Damascus. Ten Lost Tribes of Israel: Verlorene Stämme Israels {pl} mus. The people appealed to the prophet-judge Samuel for a king, after Samuel's sons misused their inherited offices. A civil war between David's forces and the northern tribes supporting Ish-Bosheth raged intermittently, ending as the northern military commander, Abner, switched sides and assassins soon closed in on Ish-Bosheth. The fourth traces the decline of the Kingdom of Israel until its fall during the Assyrian invasion of 722 B.C.E.. (See chart, below.). Critics also argue that the biblical account represses feminine depictions of the Divine, portraying God as masculine and furiously warlike, while denouncing feminine symbols of God as idolatrous.