Through him Huldrych Zwingli was invited to Germany, and Philip thus prepared the way for the celebrated Marburg Colloquy. Philip I the Magnanimous, son of William II, 1509–1567. In this, he anticipated what electoral Saxony and other Lutheran territories would be forced to do in succeeding years as they came to the realization that so much of their ecclesiastical and educational infrastructure had depended upon medieval Catholic institutions, such as clerical benefices and Latin schools run by monastic houses. n 1504–67, German prince; landgrave of Hesse . Moreover, Bucer fully agreed with the landgrave on the importance of compromise measures in treating the controversy surrounding the Eucharist. HM Margrethe II's 10-Great Grandfather. Political conditions were nonetheless very unfavorable to Philip, who might easily be charged with disturbing the peace of the empire, and at the Second Diet of Speyer, in the spring of 1529, he was publicly ignored by Emperor Charles V. Nevertheless, he took an active part in uniting the Protestant representatives, as well as in preparing the celebrated Protestation at Speyer. 94, Protestant Resistance, The Smalkaldic League (1531/35) accessed on, In Latin, the title reads "Hic oscula pedibus papae figuntur", "Nicht Bapst: nicht schreck uns mit deim ban, Und sey nicht so zorniger man. Duke Maurice of Saxony and Joachim II of Brandenburg would not join the Schmalkaldic League; Cleves was successfully invaded by imperial troops; and Protestantism was rigorously suppressed in Metz. At the Diet of Speyer in 1544 he championed the Emperor's policy with great eloquence. He was the ruling Landgrave of Hesse-Homburg from 1839 until his death. By 1524, Philipp had met and begun corresponding with the Wittenberg theologian Philipp Melanchthon, and it was Melanchthon who led the Landgrave to accept evangelical reform. At his direction his theologians were prominent in the various conferences where representative Roman Catholics and Protestants assembled to attempt to find a working basis for reunion. His father died when Philip was five years old, and in 1514 his mother, after a series of struggles with the Estates of Hesse, succeeded in becoming regent on his behalf. Though the union produced nine children, the Landgrave expressed his unhappiness in the marriage. Within a few weeks of his 1523 marriage to the unattractive and sickly Christine of Saxony, who was also alleged to be an immoderate drinker, Philip committed adultery; and as early as 1526 he began to consider the permissibility of bigamy. Philipp, Landgrave o Hesse (13 November 1504 – 31 Mairch 1567), cried der Großmütige ("the magnanimous"), was a champion o the Protestant Reformation an ane o the most important o the early Protestant rulers in Germany. Although there was no strong popular movement for Protestantism in Hesse, Philip determined to organize the church there according to Protestant principles. For Prince Philipp of Hesse (1896–1981), see, Early life and embracing of Protestantism, Imprisonment of Philip and Interim in Hesse. Property Value; dbo:abstract: Philipp III. These terms were disregarded, however, and on 23 June 1547 both the leaders of the Schmalkaldic League were taken to south Germany and held as captives. He was the ruling Landgrave of Hesse-Homburg from 1839 until his death. Since such sanction was clearly lacking in this case, Luther advised against bigamous marriage, especially for Christians, unless there was extreme necessity, as, for example, if the wife was leprous, or abnormal in other respects. Philip easily gained his first wife's consent to the marriage. Background. Hermann, Count zu Dietz (12 February 1542 – ca. Three o his sons founded cadet branches o the hoose o Hesse, including Kassel, Rotenburg an Darmstadt 1568). His sympathy for the Reformers associated with Zwingli in Switzerland and Bucer in Strasburg was intensified by the anger of the emperor at receiving from Philip a statement of Protestant tenets composed by the ex-Franciscan Lambert, and the landgrave's failure to secure any common action on the part of the Protestant powers regarding the approaching Turkish war. Philip Louis (29 giugno 1534-31 agosto 1535). In 1524, he forged the Torgau League between Frederick the Wise’s electoral Saxony and Hesse, and he would continue to oppose Charles until his fateful defeat at the emperor’s hands in 1547. He married Princess Mafalda of Savoy on September 23, 1925 in Turin, Italy. Philip's father-in-law George, Duke of Saxony, the bishop of Würzburg, Konrad II von Thungen, and the archbishop of Mainz, Albert III of Brandenburg, were active in agitating against the growth of the Reformation. Both Luther and the elector's chancellor, Gregor Brück, though convinced of the existence of the conspiracy, counseled strongly against acting on the offensive. With Margarethe he had the following children: On his death, his territories were divided (Hesse becoming Hesse-Kassel, Hesse-Marburg, Hesse-Rheinfels, and Hesse-Darmstadt) between his four sons by his first wife, namely William IV of Hesse-Kassel, Louis IV of Hesse-Marburg, Philip II of Hesse-Rheinfels, and Georg I of Hesse-Darmstadt. Best. Their activities, along with other circumstances, including rumors of war, convinced Philip of the existence of a secret league among the Roman Catholic princes. 1504 November 13, 1504. Fils de Guillaume VI de Hesse-Cassel et de d'Edwige de Brandebourg. He became landgrave on his father's death in 1509, and having been declared of age in 1518, was married in 1523 to Christina, daughter of George, duke of Saxony (d. 1539). This event had affected the entire political situation in Germany. Philipp I "The magnanimous" of Hesse-Kassel (Hessen-Brabant), Landgrave of Hesse. At the same time, he united political motives with his religious policy. Moritz, Count zu Dietz (8 June 1553 – 23 January 1575). Anuncio relacionado con: Philipp, Landgrave of Hesse wikipedia. Philip Louis (29 giugno 1534-31 agosto 1535). Before engaging in hostilities, Philip attempted to achieve the goals of Protestant policy by peaceful means. Philip, landgrave of Hesse (1509–67), one of the great figures of German Protestantism. The power of the Estates had been broken by his mother, but he owed her little else. The arrival of the emperor put an end to these disputes for the time being. He emerged as an early opponent of Charles V’s Edict of Worms, defending the right of electoral territories to support Luther’s ideas and institute reform. 1509 - Landgrave of Hesse, Count of Katzenelnbogen, Dietz, Ziegenhain, and Nidda 1509-1518 - under guardianship 1518 - attained his majority 1526 - Led the reformation 1527 - Philip founded the first Protestant university in Marburg.  The Schmalkaldic League assumed the role of protectors of Protestant lands, the members of which were formally recognized in the First Agreement of the Schmalkaldic League in 1531.. To put an end to them, Philip was declared of age in 1518, his actual assumption of power beginning the following year. By his alliance with John, Elector of Saxony, concluded in Gotha on 27 February 1526, he showed that he was already taking steps to organize a protective alliance of all Protestant princes and powers. Lady Diana's 13-Great Grandfather. Philipp died on October 25, 1980 in Rome, Italy at the age of eighty-three. April 1643) war von 1609 bis 1643 Landgraf von Hessen-Butzbach. He became landgrave on his father's death in 1509, and having been declared of age in 1518, was married in 1523 to Christina, daughter of George, duke of Saxony (d 1539). He helped organize the Marburg Colloquy in 1529, only to see the ongoing tensions between Luther and Zwingli result in the abandonment of a single Protestant confession at the Diet of Augsburg—the southern Germans presented their Tetrapolitana, while Zwingli declared his own confession, Fidei ratio. Philip Louis (29 June 1534 – 31 August 1535). For his part, the Emperor agreed not to attack him in case there was a common war against all Protestants. Eldest son William IV the Wise, Landgrave of Hesse-Kassel; second son Louis IV Landgraves of Hesse-Marburg; third son Philip the Younger Landgrave of Hesse-Rheinfels; fourth son George I Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt. From the civic regime April, 1534 – 10,000 fl. The sum proved not to be enough to hold off the multi-ethnic Imperial hordes, backed by Genoese banks, Papal reserves, and subsidies collected from the Low Countries. Known most prominently as the Landgrave of Hesse, or as Philipp the Magnanimous, he was a leading political advocate for the right of Lutheran princes to reform their churches against the objections of Rome or the Holy Roman Empire. At the Diet of Speyer in the same year, Philip openly championed the Protestant cause, rendering it possible for Protestant preachers to propagate their views while the Diet was in session, and, like his followers, openly disregarding ordinary Roman Catholic ecclesiastical usages. the bigamous marriage of Philip, Landgrave of Hesse, is notorious in the history of the sixteenth century, and it is worth while to look at it. The Landgraviate of Hesse (German: Landgrafschaft Hessen) was a Principality of the Holy Roman Empire.It existed as a unity from 1264 to 1567, when it was divided between the sons of late Landgrave Philip I.. History Edit. As long as the unrestricted preaching of the Gospel and the Protestant tenet of justification by faith were secured, other matters seemed to him of subordinate importance. The University of Marburg was founded in the summer of 1527 to be, like the University of Wittenberg, a school for Protestant theologians. Il fut landgrave de Hesse-Philippsthal de 1663 à 1721. Declared of age in 1518, he helped suppress the Peasants' War Peasants' War, 1524–26, rising of the German peasants and the poorer classes of the towns, particularly in Franconia, Swabia, and Thuringia. He accordingly proposed to marry the daughter of one of his sister's ladies-in-waiting, Margarethe von der Saale. He is also called Philip the Magnanimous. A chastened Philipp emerged who would help broker the 1555 Peace of Augsburg, thereby establishing the right of the ruler to choose either Catholicism or Protestantism. Some of Philip's allies refused to serve under him, and Luther, under the plea that it was a matter of advice given in the confessional, refused to acknowledge his part in the marriage. Felipe era hijo del Landgrave Guillermo II de Hesse y su segunda esposa, Anna de Mecklenburg-Schwerin .Su padre murió cuando Felipe tenía cinco años, y en 1514 su madre, después de una serie de luchas con los Estados de Hesse , logró convertirse en regente en su nombre. Thus the "secret advice of a confessor" was won from Luther and Melanchthon (on 10 December 1539), neither of them knowing that the bigamous wife had already been chosen. Philip I, Landgrave of Hesse : biography 13 November 1504 – 31 March 1567 Leader of the Schmalkaldic League In 1530 Philip was successful in accomplishing the purpose for which he had so long worked by securing the adhesion of the Protestant powers to the Schmalkaldic League, which was to protect their religious and secular […] Nonetheless, Philipp was able to reform his lands and put the proceeds from those measures to good use. By this, we mean cases where, on account of the Christian, just, and correct cause – as defined in our treaty of Christian alliance – we are attacked, invaded, conquered, or in any other way injured, but only for this cause and no other.". The advances of Philip, though he declined to do anything prejudicial to the Protestant cause, were welcomed by the Emperor. He even came to support the religious colloquies of 1539–41 sponsored by Charles at Hagenau, Worms, and Regensburg. Biografía Vida temprana y adopción del protestantismo . From Wikipedia - On Answersite | Search From Wikipedia. Famille. Philip embraced Protestantism in 1524 after a personal meeting with the theologian Philipp Melanchthon. Known most prominently as the Landgrave of Hesse, or as Philipp the Magnanimous, he was a leading political advocate for the right of Lutheran princes to reform their churches against the objections of Rome or the Holy Roman Empire. His education had been very imperfect, and his moral and religious training had been neglected. Philipp had forged a partnership with Strasbourg theologian Martin Bucer at Marburg in 1529, and their shared strategy of mediation helped bring about theological agreements among Protestants at Württemberg (1534), Kassel (1534), and Wittenberg (1536), the last most famously setting aside disagreements on the Eucharist. Home; Books; Search; Support. The failure of the religious colloquies and the tenuous legal position Philipp had placed himself in through the bigamous marriage convinced Charles that unity in the empire would be best attained through force. Philips Badprodukte zu Mega günstigen Preisen im MEGABAD Online Shop. It was during an illness due to his excesses that the thought of taking a second wife became a fixed purpose. The first agreement of the Schmalkaldic League accessed on, Brady A. Thomas Jr, Editor, Heiko A. Oberman, Communities, Politics and Reformation in Early Modern Europe(Leiden; Boston; Brill; Koeln, 1998) pp.92-96. Landgrave Philip III of Hesse-Butzbach (born 26 December 1581 in Darmstadt; died: 28 April 1643) was Landgrave of Hesse-Butzbach from 1609 to 1643. This association caused some coldness between himself and the followers of Luther at the Diet of Augsburg in 1530, especially when he propounded his irenic policy to Melanchthon and urged that all Protestants should stand together in demanding that a general council alone should decide religious differences. Philipp Konrad, Count zu Dietz (29 September 1547 – 25 May 1569). Politically speaking, Philipp and his family were at odds with Charles V and his Habsburg family. Philippe de Hesse-Philipsthal (en allemand Philip von Hessen-Philippsthal), né à Cassel le 14 décembre 1655, décédé le 18 juin 1721 à Aix-la-Chapelle. HRH Albert II's 12-Great Grandfather. Philipp, Landgrave o Hesse (13 November 1504 – 31 Mairch 1567), cried der Großmütige ("the magnanimous"), was a champion o the Protestant Reformation an ane o the most important o the early Protestant rulers in Germany. The time was particularly inauspicious for any scandal affecting the Protestants, for the Emperor, who had rejected the Frankfort Respite, was about to invade Germany. Like many other crowned heads, Philip lived in a dynastically arranged marriage with a wife for whom he had no affection. He read Roman Catholic controversial literature, attended mass, and was much impressed by his study of the Fathers of the Church. Noté /5. The fallout from Augsburg would lead to Philipp’s crowning achievement: the creation of the Schmalkaldic League in 1531. Philip was the son of Landgrave William II of Hesse and his second wife Anna of Mecklenburg-Schwerin. Married Sabine of Württemberg (1549 – 1581) daughter of Christopher, Duke of Württemberg (en) 25بك المحتوى هنا ينقصه الاستشهاد بمصادر. The first meeting of Philip of Hesse with Martin Luther took place in 1521, at the age of 17, at the Diet of Worms. PM Cameron's 12-Great Grandfather. Before leaving the city he succeeded in forming, on 22 April 1529, a secret understanding between Saxony, Hesse, Nuremberg, Strasburg, and Ulm. Philip of Hesse (hĕs), 1504–67, German nobleman, landgrave of Hesse (1509–67), champion of the Reformation.He is also called Philip the Magnanimous. Philip August Frederick (11 March 1779 – 15 December 1846) was Landgrave of Hesse-Homburg from 19 January 1839 until his death. While the landgrave had no scruples in this matter whatsoever, Margarethe was unwilling to take the step unless they had the approval of the theologians and the consent of the elector of Saxony, John Frederick I, and of Duke Maurice of Saxony. Married Magdalene of Lippe (1552–1587) daughter of Bernhard VIII, Count of Lippe. HM George I's 3-Great Grandfather. Suspected of Zwinglianism. The landgrave and his ally, John, Elector of Saxony, became recognized leaders of this union of German princes and cities. Reformation Church | church history review. Définitions de philip landgrave of hesse philippsthal, synonymes, antonymes, dérivés de philip landgrave of hesse philippsthal, dictionnaire analogique de philip landgrave of hesse philippsthal (anglais) In 1539, presumably under the seal of the confessional, both Luther and Melanchthon capitulated to his requests, and a year later Philipp married 17-year old Margaret von der Saale. Portraits-Hans Krell-Philipp I Hessen-1534.jpg 4 873 × 6 057 ; 9,06 Mio. Philip I, Landgrave of Hesse : biography 13 November 1504 – 31 March 1567 Marriage and children Philip married in Dresden on 11 December 1523 Christine of Saxony (daughter of George, Duke of Saxony) and had in this marriage 10 children: Agnes (31 May 1527 – 4 November 1555), married: in Marburg on 9 January […] In 1527, he divided the profit from seized monasteries, applying 41% to the support of his crown, but 59% to ecclesiastical and educational endeavors. The son and successor of Landgrave William II, he married Christina of Saxony in 1523. Four months later (20 July 1546) the imperial ban was declared against John Frederick and Philip as perjured rebels and traitors. In this he was aided not only by his chancellor, the humanist Johann Feige, and his chaplain, Adam Krafft, but also by the ex-Franciscan François Lambert of Avignon, a staunch enemy of the faith he had left. Johannes Bugenhagen. The struggles over authority continued, however. It seemed to him to be the only salve for his troubled conscience and the only hope of moral improvement open to him. Barbara (8 aprile 1536-8 giugno 1597), sposata: a Reichenweier il 10 settembre 1555 a Giorgio I, duca di Württemberg ; a Kassel l'11 novembre 1568 al conte Daniele di Waldeck . von Hessen-Butzbach (* 26. The Battle of Lauffen on 13 May 1534 cost Ferdinand his newly acquired possession and caused Philip to be recognized as the hero of the day in Protestant Germany; his victory was viewed as the victory of the Schmalkaldic League. Retrouvez Philip I, Landgrave of Hesse: Prince Philipp of Hesse- Kassel, William IV et des millions de livres en stock sur Amazon.fr. Despite this discouragement, Philip gave up neither his project to secure a bigamous marriage nor his life of sensuality, which kept him for years from receiving communion. Philip was thoroughly convinced that the Protestant cause depended on weakening the power of the Habsburg emperors both at home and abroad. Philipp’s reasons for supporting the imperial-sponsored colloquies, not to mention the reason for the Schmalkaldic League’s ultimate demise, can be traced back to his fateful decision to enter into bigamy, which was strictly prohibited by imperial law. A few weeks later, however, the whole matter was revealed by Philip's sister Elisabeth, and the scandal caused a painful reaction throughout Germany. Philip married in Dresden on 11 December 1523 Christine of Saxony (daughter of George, Duke of Saxony) and had in this marriage 10 children: Also, on 4 March 1540 he morganatically married Margarethe von der Saale, while remaining married to Christine of Saxony. The situation was suddenly changed, however, and Philip was tardily forced again into the opposition against the Emperor, by the Treaty of Crépy of 1544, which opened his eyes to the danger threatening Protestantism. Philip of Hesse (hĕs), 1504–67, German nobleman, landgrave of Hesse (1509–67), champion of the Reformation. PHILIP, Landgrave of Hesse (1504-1567), son of the landgrave William II., was born at Marburg on the 13th of November 1504. His agile mind, infectious energy, and fearlessness made him the leader of the Protestant estates in the power struggle with Roman Catholic Emperor Charles V. His warmhearted, generous nature earned him the byname ‘the Magnanimous.’ Média dans la catégorie « Philip I, Landgrave of Hesse » Cette catégorie comprend 39 fichiers, dont les 39 ci-dessous. Secure of the imperial favor, he agreed to appear at the Diet of Regensburg in 1541, and his presence there contributed to the direction affairs took at the Regensburg religious colloquy, in which Melanchthon, Bucer, and Johann Pistorius the Elder represented the Protestant side. The Protestants, however, failed to avail themselves of their opportunities, largely through the extreme docility and pliability of Philip. Philipp represented the Protestants and opposed Charles at the 1530 Diet of Augsburg, where the emperor rejected the northern German Augsburg Confession. Philip was the third son of Landgrave Philip the Magnanimous and Christine of Saxony (1505-1549). The Holy Roman Empire’s elector John of Saxony, Philip’s most powerful ally, agreed to, “oppose the terms of the Edict of Worms, which outlawed Martin Luther and demanded his punishment as a heretic”. He was bitterly disgusted by the criticism directed against him, and feared that the law which he himself had enacted against adultery might be applied to his own case. The father of Philip I, William II, had died when Philip I was only four years old. All his energies were now directed toward finding a basis of agreement between Protestants and Roman Catholics. The Hessian prince had spent much time prior to Augsburg attempting to form a broader Protestant alliance that would present a unified front against his Habsburg foe, but theological disagreement derailed those efforts. Fearful of the success of these plans, the emperor invited Philip to an interview at Speyer. This plunged Hesse into political controversy over its regency, with nobles taking the temporary reigns and ultimately separating Philipp from his mother, Anna of Mecklenburg. From the Great Hospital” He proposed a compromise on the subject of confiscated church property, but at the same time he was untiring in preparing for a possible recourse to war and cultivated diplomatic relations with any and all powers whom he knew to have anti-Habsburg interests. He put his trust entirely in the Emperor's good faith, agreeing to help him against both the French and the Turks. Philip no longer desired to assume the leadership of the Protestant party. Philipp’s practical reforms likewise took place on two levels. HRE Charles VI's 4-Great Grandfather. LANDGRAVE OF Hesse (1504-1567), son of the landgrave William II., was born at Marburg on the 13th of November 1504. He would likewise follow the course of Melanchthon, not that of a Luther or a Zwingli, in seeking compromise among reformers and a mediating position on disputed questions of theology. Philip himself wrote from prison to forward the acceptance of the Augsburg Interim, especially as his liberty depended upon it. Engaging in extramarital relationships disturbed his conscience, however, so that for years he … Predecessor: William II Successor: of Hesse-Kassel: William IV Successor of Hesse-Marburg: Louis IV Successor of Hesse-Rheinfels: Philip II Successor of Hesse-Darmstadt: Georg I. view all 25 Philipp I "the Magnanimous", Landgrave of Hesse-Kassel's Timeline. The Augsburg Interim was finally introduced, sanctioning Catholic practises and terms. Philipp attempted to enforce a church order that would have included a synodal structure of church governance, as well as provisions for smaller, more independent gatherings of believers within that synod. Robert Kolb to Speak at Concordia Seminary on “Luther’s Fiercest Foes”, Miroslav Volf to Speak at Concordia Seminary, The “Three Kingdoms” of Simon Musaeus: An essay from the Festschrift for James M. Estes, Session 4 Links - Christ the King Lutheran Church, Session 2 Links - Christ the King Lutheran Church, Luther’s Reformation 500 Yrs. They have also been known as "Philip I, Landgrave of Hesse".Their Zodiac sign is ♏ Scorpio.Their Chinese Zodiac sign is 鼠 Rat.They are considered the most important person in history who died in 1567. The Landgraviate of Hesse-Kassel (German: Landgrafschaft Hessen-Kassel), known as Hesse-Cassel during its existence, was a state in the Holy Roman Empire under directly subject to the Emperor that came into existence when the Landgraviate of Hesse was divided in 1567 upon the death of Philip I, Landgrave of Hesse.. His eldest son William IV inherited the northern half and the capital of Kassel. Although there was no strong popular movement for Protestantism in Hesse, Philip determined to organize the church there according to Protestant principles. 3 Nr. But when Charles V demanded that the Protestant representatives should take part in the procession of Corpus Christi, and that Protestant preaching should cease in the city, Philip bluntly refused to obey. But while only Albrecht VII, Duke of Mecklenburg, and Henry V, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, of the secular princes were still faithful to the Roman Catholic cause, and while united action might at the time easily have resulted in the triumph of Protestantism, there was no union of purpose. It is out of these debates the Augsburg Confessions arose. https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Philip_I,_Landgrave_of_Hesse&oldid=1014221251, Articles lacking in-text citations from February 2020, Pages using infobox royalty with unknown parameters, Wikipedia articles incorporating a citation from the Schaff-Herzog with no title parameter, Wikipedia articles incorporating text from the Schaff-Herzog, Articles with German-language sources (de), Wikipedia articles with PLWABN identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SNAC-ID identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with Trove identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. n 1504–67, German prince; landgrave of Hesse . Such antagonistic effrontery, however, would cause problems for his reform party. The Literary Encyclopedia. First published 01 November 2010; last revised 30 November -1. 1530 - Philip signed the Augsburg Confession, which declared the Lutheran doctrines of faith. Landgrave of Hesse-Kassel 1567-1803 King of Sweden 1720-1751. Philip I, Landgrave of Hesse is the most famous person who died in 1567. Philip was the son of Landgrave William II of Hesse and his second wife Anna of Mecklenburg-Schwerin.His father died when Philip was five years old, and in 1514 his mother, after a series of struggles with the Estates of Hesse, succeeded in becoming regent on his behalf. These arrangements for special terms led to the collapse of Philip's position as leader of the Protestant party. How-To Tutorials; Suggestions; Machine Translation Editions; Noahs Archive Project; About Us. Bucer, who was strongly influenced by political arguments, was won over by the landgrave's threat to ally himself with the Emperor if he did not secure the consent of the theologians to the marriage, and the Wittenberg divines were worked upon by the plea of the prince's ethical necessity. This effort resulted in the foundation of: the League of Gotha, then the League of Torgau, and finally the Schmalkaldic League. The emperor's fears as to the political purpose of the league were, for the time being, set aside, but at the same time a council which would include representatives of the pope was rejected and measures were taken to secure the permanence of the Protestant cause in the future. Hesse, 1500–1567. www.answersite.com/From WikipediaWikipedia He likewise criticized Philipp for proposing a general visitation of the churches to initiate reform because he opposed an imposition of reform through governmental means. Even while the marriage question was occupying his attention, Philip was engaged in constructing far-reaching plans for reforming the Church and for drawing together all the opponents of the House of Habsburg, though at the same time he did not give up hopes of reaching a religious compromise through diplomatic means. يرجى إيراد مصادر موثوق بها. 153 relations. Philip I, Landgrave of Hesse is part of WikiProject Lutheranism, an effort to build a comprehensive and detailed guide to Lutheranism on Wikipedia. It is also a noteworthy fact that it has been left to an American licentiate of theology, William Walker Rockwell, late of Andover, now one of the church history professors in … Catholic forces prevailed, and Charles imprisoned Philipp until the Truce of Passau in 1552. George I (1547-1596) Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt from 1567, fourth son of Philip I the Magnanimous.