As King Charles II had no children, the question of who would succeed to the Spanish throne unleashed a major war. This was a confrontation between two different styles of Ancien Regime, the french style and the spanish style (or Habsburg's style). In general, they had little wealth. The Ancien Régime, a French term rendered in English as “Old Rule,” “Old Kingdom,” or simply “Old Regime,” refers primarily to the aristocratic, social and political system established in France from (roughly) the 15th century to the 18th century under the late Valois and Bourbon dynasties. A royal citadel was built and the university and consulate were taken over by the Catholic party.  The late Valois and Bourbon dynasties ruled during the Ancien Régime. French Protestantism, which was largely Calvinist, derived its support from the lesser nobles and trading classes. The number would increase to 21 at the end of the 16th century, and to 36 at the time of the French Revolution; the last two were created in 1784. Furthermore, contact between American revolutionaries and the French soldiers which provided aid to the Continental Army in North America during the Revolutionary War helped spread revolutionary ideals to the French people. L'Armée de l'ancien régime : de Louis XIV à la Révolution by Mention, Léon, b. In addition to fiefs that church members possessed as seigneurs, the church also possessed seigneurial lands in its own right and enacted justice upon them. Although the Edict of Nantes (1598) permitted the existence of prostestant churches in the realm (characterized as "a state within a state"), the next eighty years saw the rights of the Huguenots slowly stripped away, until Louis XIV finally revoked the edict in 1685, producing a massive emigration of Huguenots to other countries. , In addition, there were about 40,000 to 50,000 Jews in France, chiefly centered in Bordeaux, Metz and a few other cities. In an effort to increase revenues, the state often turned to the creation of new offices. In case of refusal on parliament's part to register the edicts (frequently concerning fiscal matters), the king could impose registration through a royal assize ("lit de justice"). Its two main strongholds were south west France and Normandy, but even in these districts the Catholics were a majority. The nobility came second in terms of wealth, but there was no unity. Cette période est définie par un regime politique, économique et social antérieur à la révolution française de 1789. Only certain seigneurs—those with the power of haute justice (seigneurial justice was divided into "high" "middle" and "low" justice) – could enact the death penalty, and only with the consent of the présidiaux. From the end of the Wars of Religion to the French Revolution, Menat, a Cluniac abbey dating back to 1107, ruled over the Sioule Valley in the northwest region of the Clermont diocese. By the terms of the Treaty of Ryswick (1697), Louis XIV retained the whole of Alsace, but he was forced to return Lorraine to its ruler and give up any gains on the right bank of the Rhine. The head of the judicial system in France was the chancellor. The governors were at the height of their power from the middle of the 16th to the mid-17th century, but their role in provincial unrest during the civil wars led Cardinal Richelieu to create the more tractable positions of intendants of finance, policing and justice, and in the 18th century the role of provincial governors was greatly curtailed. The most important public source for borrowing was through the system of "rentes sur l'Hôtel de Ville" of Paris, a kind of government bond system offering investers annual interest. The drive for centralization in this period related directly to questions of royal finances and the ability to wage war. ISBN 0-8018-5631-0* Pillorget, René and Suzanne Pillorget.  The appointments of intendants—representatives of royal power in the provinces—did much to undermine local control by regional nobles. In an era where the ideas of honour and prestige are slowly dying to modern arms while the grounds to modern diplomacy have been laid out. File:Louis XIV habillé en soleil.jpg. The major tax collectors in that system were known as the fermiers généraux (farmers-general in English). Taxation districts had gone through a variety of mutations from the 14th century on. Finally, abbots, cardinals and other prelates were frequently employed by the kings as ambassadors, members of his councils (such as Richelieu and Mazarin) and in other administrative positions. The representative of the king in his provinces and cities was the gouverneur. New analysis shows that these civil wars were in fact religious in nature, remnants of the French Wars of Religion that largely ended with the Edict of Nantes in 1598. The creation of the Intendants -- representatives of royal power in the provinces -- would do much to undermine local control by regional nobles. ↘(the Ancien Régime) the political and social system in France before the… … English new terms dictionary, ancien regime — [[t]ɑ͟ːnsjɒn reɪʒi͟ːm[/t]] 1) N SING: usu the N The ancien regime was the political and social system in France before the revolution of 1789. For generations, Englishmen had contemplated capturing the Spanish treasure fleet, a feat that had only been accomplished once, in 1628, by Dutchmen Piet Hein. The major tax collectors in that system were known as the "fermiers généraux" (farmers-general in English). The "cours des aides" supervised affairs in the "pays d'élections", often concerning taxes on wine, beer, soap, oil, metals, etc. The French monarchy was irrevocably linked to the Catholic Church (the formula says "la France est la fille aînée de l'église", or "France is the eldest daughter of the church"), and French theorists of the divine right of kings and sacerdotal power in the Renaissance had made these links explicit: Henry IV was able to ascend to the throne only after abjuring Protestantism. One key to this centralization was the replacing of personal “clientele” systems organized around the king and other nobles by institutional systems around the state. The areas were named Languedoïl, Languedoc, Outre-Seine-and-Yonne, and Nomandy (the latter was created in 1449; the other three were created earlier), with the directors of the "Languedoïl" region typically having an honorific preeminence. However, the king had only about 10,000 officials in royal service — very few indeed for such a large country, and with very slow internal communications over an inadequate road system. Books* Bély, Lucien. In 1542, Henry II, [Francis was still king in 1542] France was divided into 16 généralités. Louis XIV of France created several additional tax systems, including the "capitation" (begun in 1695) which touched every person including nobles and the clergy (although exemption could be bought for a large one-time sum) and the "dixième" (1710-1717, restarted in 1733), enacted to support the military, which was a true tax on income and on property value. A szó etimológiája: Két ősi francia szó egybeolvadásából keletkezett: . Rosow, Lois. Pages in category "Military history of the Ancien Régime" The following 19 pages are in this category, out of 19 total. All Categories; Metaphysics and Epistemology Scarcity and insecurity in agrarian life.  The different estates of the realm – the clergy, the nobility, and commoners – occasionally met together in the Estates General, but in practice the Estates General had no power, for it could petition the king but not pass laws itself. Aristocrats were confronted by the rising ambitions of merchants, tradesmen, and prosperous farmers, who were allied with aggrieved peasants, wage-earners, and intellectuals influenced by the ideas of Enlightenment philosophers. Despite, however, the notion of “absolute monarchy” (typified by the king's right to issue lettres de cachet) and the efforts by the kings to create a centralized state, ancien régime France remained a country of systemic irregularities: administrative (including taxation), legal, judicial, and ecclesiastic divisions and prerogatives frequently overlapped, while the French nobility struggled to maintain their own rights in the matters of local government and justice, and powerful internal conflicts (like the Fronde) protested against this centralization. The city's political institutions and the university were all handed over to the Huguenots. C'est le siècle qui a forgé toutes les armes victorieuses contre cet insaisissable adversaire qu'on appelle l'ennui. The historian Alexis de Tocqueville argued against this defining narrative in his classic study, L'Ancien Régime et la Révolution, highlighting the continuities between pre- and post-revolutionary French institutions. The ordinance of Blois of 1579 reduced their number to 12, and an ordinance of 1779 increased their number to 39 (18 first-class governors, 21 second-class governors). Spain's silver, and its inability to protect its assets, made it a highly visible target for ambitious Europeans. The appeals from their sentences went to the "bailliages", who also had jurisdiction in the first instance over actions brought against nobles. The appeals from their sentences went to the bailliages, who also had jurisdiction in the first instance over actions brought against nobles. Collection: Bouquins. A growing number of the French citizenry had absorbed the ideas of "equality" and "freedom of the individual" as presented by Voltaire, Denis Diderot, Turgot, and other philosophers and social theorists of the Enlightenment. Although exempted from the taille, the church was required to pay the crown a tax called the "free gift" ("don gratuit"), which it collected from its office holders, at roughly 1/20 the price of the office (this was the "décime", reapportioned every five years). ancient) + REGIME (Cf. Spain lost its European holdings outside the homeland itself. The ordinance of Blois of 1579 reduced their number to 12, but an ordinance of 1779 increased their number to 39 (18 first-class governors, 21 second-class governors). In 1542, Henry II, France was divided into 16 "généralités". Over time, the decision-making apparatus of the King's Council was divided into several royal counsels. In the pays d'élection (the longest held possessions of the French crown; some of these provinces had had the equivalent autonomy of a pays d'état in an earlier period, but had lost it through the effects of royal reforms) the assessment and collection of taxes were trusted to elected officials (at least originally, later these positions were bought), and the tax was generally "personal", meaning it was attached to non-noble individuals. In addition to fiefs that church members possessed as seigneurs, the church also possessed seigneurial lands in its own right and enacted justice upon them. "Pays d'imposition" were recently conquered lands which had their own local historical institutions (they were similar to the "pays d'état" under which they are sometimes grouped), although taxation was overseen by the royal intendant. ISBN 2-253-06423-8* Jouanna, Arlette and Philippe Hamon, Dominique Biloghi, Guy Thiec. English mariners nevertheless seriously pursued the opportunities for privateering and trade in Spain's colonies. Indendants were chosen from among the maître des requêtes. Democratic, Nationalism, Communism, Paternal Authoritarianism and Enlightened Absolutism. : "For church history in the 16th century, see Reformation and French Wars of Religion.". C'est au XVIe siècle qu'apparaît le concept souveraineté défini par Bodin. French acquisitions from 1461-1789:* under Louis XI - Provence (1482), Dauphiné (1461, under French control since 1349)* under François I - Brittany (1532)* under Henri II - Calais, Trois-Évêchés (1552)* under Henri IV - County of Foix (1607)* under Louis XIII - Béarn and Navarre (1620, under French control since 1589 as part of Henri IV's possessions)* under Louis XIV** Treaty of Westphalia (1648) - Alsace** Treaty of the Pyrenees (1659) - Artois, Northern Catalonia (Roussillon, Cerdagne)** Treaty of Nijmegen (1678-9) - Franche-Comté, Flanders* under Louis XV - Lorraine (1766), Corsica (1768). The main powers had exhausted themselves in warfare, with many deaths, disabled veterans, ruined navies, high pension costs, heavy loans and high taxes. In the exercise of their legal functions, they sat alone, but had to consult with certain lawyers (avocats or procureurs) chosen by themselves, whom, to use the technical phrase, they "summoned to their council". The theme recurs throughout nineteenth-century French literature, with Balzac and Flaubert alike attacking the mores of the new upper classes. Regular clergy (i.e. In an attempt to reform the system, new divisions were created. The fighting generally favoured Louis XIV's armies, but by 1696, France was in the grip of an economic crisis. In its turn, the church exacted a mandatory tithe from its parishioners, called the "dîme". The Pragmatic Sanction of Bourges (1438, suppressed by Louis XI but brought back by the États Généraux of Tours in 1484) gave the election of bishops and abbots to the cathedral chapter houses and abbeys of France, thus stripping the pope of effective control of the French church and permitting the beginning of a Gallican church. London's financial system proved strikingly competent in funding not only the English army, but its allies as well. Drawing by Georg Wille of an opéra comique, possibly Monsigny's Le Roi et le fermier, being performed at the Hôtel de Bourgogne in 1767. Reforms in the 14th and 15th centuries saw France's royal financial administration run by two financial boards which worked in a collegial manner: the four Généraux des finances (also called général conseiller or receveur général) oversaw the collection of taxes (taille, aides, etc.) In an effort to increase revenues, the state often turned to the creation of new offices. This system of government, called the Polysynody, lasted from 1715–18. Montpellier was among the most important of the 66 "villes de sûreté" that the Edict of 1598 granted to the Huguenots. 77.] "For more information on the Ancien Régime economy, see Economic history of France.". * "Conseil privé" or "Conseil des parties"' or "Conseil d'État" ("Privy Council" or "Council of State", concerning the judicial system, officially instituted in 1557) — the largest of the royal councils, composed of the chancellor, the dukes with peerage, the ministers and secretaries of state, the "contrôleur général des finances", the 30 councillors of state, the 80 maître des requêtes and the intendants of finance. However Sir Robert Walpole was the dominant decision-maker, 1722-1740, although the role was not yet called prime minister. Collection: Bouquins.  The former members of the alliance, too, profited from the war; the United Provinces had maintained its independence in the face of French aggression; the Habsburgs had picked up territory north of Austria and in Italy, including the erstwhile Spanish Netherlands and Naples; but the greatest beneficiary of the war was Britain, which, in addition to extensive extra-European territorial gains made at the expense of Spain and France, also established further checks to French expansion within the continent by moderately strengthening its European allies. Kennedy, P. The Rise and Fall of the Great Powers: Economic Change and Military Conflict from 1500 to 2000. Le don, la contrainte et l'origine du système financier de la monarchie française d'Ancien Régime. Until 1661, the head of the financial system in France was generally the "surintendant des finances"; with the fall of Fouquet, this was replaced by the lesser position of "contrôleur général des finances". Certain provinces and cities had won special privileges (such as lower rates in the gabelle or salt tax). The Dutch Republic was much reduced in power, and thus agreed with England's idea of peace. Protestantism in France was considered a grave threat to national unity, as the Huguenot minority felt a closer affinity with German and Dutch Calvinists than with their fellow Frenchmen. Hyman, 1988. Justice in seigneurial lands (including those held by the church or within cities) was generally overseen by the seigneur or his delegated officers. The administration of the généralités of the Renaissance went through a variety of reforms. Louis XIV's decision to cross the Rhine in September 1688 was designed to extend his influence and pressure the Holy Roman Empire into accepting his territorial and dynastic claims, but when Leopold I and the German princes resolved to resist, and when the States General and William III brought the Dutch and the English into the war against France, the French King at last faced a powerful coalition aimed at curtailing his ambitions. From the late fifteenth century up to the late seventeenth century (and again in the 1760s), France underwent a massive territorial expansion and an attempt to better integrate its provinces into an administrative whole. The governors were at the height of their power from the middle of the 16th to the mid-17th century. 39ᵉ année, N. 6, 1984. pp. The pope likewise recognized the "most Christian king" was a powerful ally who could not be alienated.. Another key source of state financing was through charging fees for state positions (such as most members of parlements, magistrates, maître des requêtes and financial officers). Theirs was no longer a favorite religion of the elite; most Protestants were peasants. The law courts ("Parlements") were powerful, especially that of France. Certain provinces and cities had won special privileges (such as lower rates in the gabelle or salt tax). The title gouverneur first appeared under Charles VI. The symbolic power of the Catholic monarch was apparent in his crowning (the king was anointed by blessed oil in Rheims) and he was popularly believed to be able to cure scrofula by the laying on of his hands (accompanied by the formula "the king touches you, but God heals you"). The faculty of theology of Paris (often called the Sorbonne), maintained a censor board which reviewed publications for their religious orthodoxy. Press, 1994. * "Chambre des comptes" combined with "Cours des aides" - Aix, Bar-le-Duc, Dole, Nancy, Montpellier, Pau, Rouen* "Cours des monnaies" - Paris; additionally Lyon (1704-1771), and (after 1766), the chambre des comptes of Bar-le-Duc and Nancy. Provincial governors – also called lieutenants généraux – also had the ability of convoking provincial parlements, provincial estates and municipal bodies. Paris: Life & Luxury in the Eighteenth Century, ed. Their role in provincial unrest during the civil wars led Cardinal Richelieu to create the more tractable positions of intendants of finance, policing and justice, and in the 18th century the role of provincial governors was greatly curtailed. , The English welcomed the French refugees, providing money from both government and private agencies to aid their relocation. Even before the Edict of Alès (1629), Protestant rule was dead and the ville de sûreté was no more. This system first came to use in 1522 under Francis I. Many of these fees were quite elevated, but some of these offices conferred nobility and could be financially advantageous.  In 1604, Sully created a new tax, the paulette or "annual tax" (1/60 of the amount of the official charge), which permitted the title-holder to be free of the 40-day rule. Although the law was seldom enforced it could be a threat or a nuisance to Protestants. Hauser, H. “The Characteristic Features of French Economic History from the Middle of the Sixteenth to the Middle of the Eighteenth Century.”. 2 talking about this. ISBN 2-13-047406-3* Bluche, François. Appreciating all things related to Early Modern France with both a serious and lighthearted tone. Only certain seigneurs -- those with the power of "haute justice" (seigeurial justice was divided into "high" "middle" and "low" justice) -- could enact the death penalty, and only with the consent of the "présidiaux". Riley, James C. "French Finances, 1727-1768,", Sutherland, D. M. G. "Peasants, Lords, and Leviathan: Winners and Losers from the Abolition of French Feudalism, 1780-1820,", This page was last edited on 9 January 2021, at 06:01. Taxation districts had gone through a variety of mutations from the 14th century on. Voir plus d'idées sur le thème Ancien régime, Ancien, Bavière. Louis XIV also accepted William III as the rightful King of England, while the Dutch acquired their barrier fortress system in the Spanish Netherlands to help secure their own borders. Indendants were chosen from among the maître des requêtes. Before the 14th century, oversight of the collection of royal taxes fell generally to the baillis and sénéchaux in their circumscriptions. Exempted from the taille were clergy and nobles (except for non-noble lands they held in "pays d'état", see below), officers of the crown, military personnel, magistrates, university professors and students, and certain cities ("villes franches") such as Paris. Communities of nuns in France on the eve of Revolution had, on average, 25 members and a median age of 48 years. Although the church would come under attack in the 18th century by the philosophers of the Enlightenment and recruitment of clergy and monastic orders would drop after 1750, figures show that, on the whole, the population remained a profoundly Catholic country (absenteeism from services did not exceed 1% in the middle of the century [Viguerie, 280.] Justice in seigneurial lands (including those held by the church or within cities) was generally overseen by the seigneur or his delegated officers. The main provisions of the Edict of Nantes (1598), which Henry IV had issued as a charter of religious freedoms for the Huguenots, were as follows; firstly Huguenots were allowed to hold religious services in certain towns in each province; secondly they were allowed to control and fortify eight cities; thirdly special courts were established to try Huguenot offenders; fourthly Huguenots were to have equal civil rights with the Catholics. The faculty of theology of Paris (often called the Sorbonne), maintained a censorship board which reviewed publications for their religious orthodoxy. In the exercise of their legal functions, they sat alone, but had to consult with certain lawyers ("avocats" or "procureurs") chosen by themselves, whom, to use the technical phrase, they "summoned to their council". The other traditional representatives bodies in the realm were the Etats généraux (created in 1302) which reunited the three estates of the realm (clergy, nobility, the third estate) and the "États provinciaux" (Provincial Estates). The médecins du roi at the end of the ancien régime and in the French Revolution. Retrieved from "https://military.wikia.org/wiki/Category:Military_history_of_the_Ancien_Régime?oldid=2825346" Au point de vue civil, la société de l'Ancien régime est fondée tout entière sur les privilèges, qui règlent les droits de chacun. * "Grand Conseil" - created in 1497 to oversee affairs concerning ecclesiastical benefices; occasionally the king sought the Grand Conseil's intervention in affairs considered to be too contentious for the parliament. The main source of royal administrative power in the provinces in the 16th and early 17th centuries fell to the "gouverneurs" (who represented "the presence of the king in his province"), positions which had long been held by only the highest ranked families in the realm. It had a surprisingly small navy, for seamanship was a low priority among the Spanish elites. The church was the primary provider of schools (primary schools and "colleges") and hospitals ("hôtel-Dieu", the Sisters of Charity) and distributor of relief to the poor in pre-revolutionary France. Nuns were both entering the profession later and living longer than before. Paris was by far the largest city with 220,000 people in 1547 and a history of steady growth. Royal officers chosen from the highest nobility, provincial and city governors (oversight of provinces and cities was frequently combined) were predominantly military positions in charge of defense and policing. The subcouncils of the King's Council can be generally grouped as "governmental councils", "financial councils" and "judicial and administrative councils". ISBN 2-221-07426-2* Jouanna, Arlette and Jacqueline Boucher, Dominique Biloghi, Guy Thiec. The church was the primary provider of schools (primary schools and "colleges") and hospitals ("hôtel-Dieu", the Sisters of Charity) and distributor of relief to the poor in pre-revolutionary France.