Among them, Alan Stivell contributed most in popularising the Celtic harp and Breton music in the world. Some of these are routes using mainly smaller roads and both signposted and maintained by communes individually, but many are based on dedicated cycle paths often formed by converting disused railway tracks. Secondary train services are operated by TER Bretagne which provides connections between small towns such as Vannes, Carhaix, Roscoff and Paimpol. However, local innovations permitted some changes and the birth of a particular style. Il y a 6 mots finissant par REC : AREC FENUGREC GREC NEOGREC TANREC & TENREC. The president also appoints a prefect in each département. Rennes-Krasnodar: le penalty de Guirassy, premier but breton en Ligue des champions PSG-Manchester United: l'égalisation parisienne grâce au but contre-son-camp de Martial 20/10/2020 à 22h25 Thus, free schools were opened in almost every villages of Brittany. Since then, the region of Brittany has had its own council and administrative bodies. The Visigoths' version of events was that they had saved the Roman empire from a British invasion. The Loire-Atlantique and Ille-et-Vilaine councils have also been held by the left since 2004. The Breton bocage, with its small fields enclosed by thick hedgerows, has almost disappeared since the 1960s to fit the modern agricultural needs and methods, particularly mechanisation. After the war, the journal Al Liamm pursued that mission. Charles Armand Tuffin, marquis de la Rouërie. The highest hill in Brittany is the Roc'h Ruz in the Monts d'Arrée, at 385 m (1,263 ft). There is a very old pilgrimage called the Tro Breizh (tour of Brittany), where the pilgrims walk around Brittany from the grave of one of the seven founder saints to another. Other major sites include the Barnenez cairn, the Locmariaquer megaliths, the Menhir de Champ-Dolent, the Mane Braz tumulus and the Gavrinis tomb. The Duchy was legally abolished during the French Revolution, in 1789, and divided into five departments. The new Brittany had four départements, and Loire-Atlantique formed the Pays de la Loire region together with parts of Anjou, Maine and Poitou. These cities are Condate (Rennes), Vorgium (Carhaix), Darioritum (Vannes) and Condevincum or Condevicnum (Nantes). Mairie de Locronan. The most impressive castles can be seen along the border with France, where stand the Château de Fougères, the Château de Vitré, the Château de Châteaubriant and the Château de Clisson. This episode would have inspired the duchess' motto : "Potius mori quam foedari" ("rather death than dishonour"). The Armorican massif straightened and flattened several times during the formation of the Pyrenees and the Alps. Ermine had been used in Brittany long before, and there is no clue about its origin. Pour en saisir le sens, pour en extraire des bribes, les non initiés trouveront l’essentiel dans notre dictionnaire breton. Liste des mots terminant avec les lettres REC. In Loire-Atlantique, where Gallo is not promoted at all by the local authorities, many people do not even know the word "Gallo" and have no idea that it has writing systems and publications. The LGV Atlantique which stops at Le Mans will be extended to Rennes in 2017, providing faster connections between Paris and Brittany. The coat of arms of Brittany, ermine plain, was adopted by John III in 1316. [83][84], Merlin's tomb in the Brocéliande forest, Paimpont, Castle of Saint-Malo, Qui Qu'en Grogne Tower, Festival du chant de marin, sea songs festival in Paimpol. [70], As official religious statistics are forbidden in France, there are no official figures about religious practices in Brittany. This term probably comes from a Gallic word, aremorica, which means "close to the sea". Genomförs det olika: annons skön massage i linköping. [45] The transfer was interrupted by the French Revolution, and all the French universities were dissolved in 1793. In 1882, Jules Ferry succeeded in passing a law which made primary education in France free, non-clerical (laïque) and mandatory. The present Breton landscape did not acquired its final shape before one million years ago. Wine, especially muscadet, is made in a small region south of Nantes. These penitential ceremonies occur in some villages in Lower Brittany on the feast day of the parish's saint. Kan Netflixserie Om En Kille Som Dejtar Tjejer Mot Betalning komma, hem till, mig lite när själva, och puls vilket märks, tydligt varje. After he died childless, the duchess had to marry his heir and cousin Louis XII. Press question mark to learn the rest of the keyboard shortcuts. However, most of the population remained rural. He eventually married Anne of Brittany. Both arose from attempts to resist centralisation and assert Breton constitutional exceptions to tax.[28]. It declined during the 18th century, mostly because Nantes was flourishing with the Atlantic slave trade and paid no attention to its cultural institutions. The current border runs from Plouha on the English Channel to the Rhuys Peninsula on the Bay of Biscay. However, some areas such as the industrial region around Saint-Nazaire and Lorient and the surroundings of Tréguier are traditional Socialist and Communist strongholds. Unlike Breton, Gallo does not have a long promotion history and it is still often perceived as a poor rural dialect. Shipbuilding, both commercial and military, is implanted in Saint-Nazaire (Chantiers de l'Atlantique), Lorient and Brest; Airbus has plants in Saint-Nazaire and Nantes; and Peugeot has a large factory in Rennes. Le mot "Gant" ("Avec") en breton et ses multiples utilisations. The House of. Surrounded by the sea, Brittany offers a wide range of fresh seafood and fish, especially mussels and oysters. Le mot BRETON vaut 8 points au scrabble. However, Nantes was seized by the Vikings in 914. It is not itself a Celtic language. It is followed by Rennes – Saint-Jacques, Lorient South Brittany and Dinard – Saint-Malo. Brittany is the second French region for telecommunication and the fifth for electronics, two activities mainly developed in Rennes, Lannion and Brest. [57] Loire-Atlantique's population is more rapidly growing than Region Brittany's and it is the 12th most populated French département. The region has a great number of baroque retables, made between the 17th and the 19th century. Both historians describe Riothamus's losing battle against King Euric of the Visigoths at Déols around the year 470. Nantes has a museum dedicated to Jules Verne, a Natural History Museum and a museum of archaeology and design, the Musée Dobrée. The largest menhir alignments are the Carnac stones. Until the 1970s, the Breton road network was poor because maritime and rail transport prevailed. The dukes were crowned in Rennes and they had a large castle there; it was however destroyed during the 15th century. The official spelling is a compromise between both variants, with a z and an h together. Construisez aussi des listes de mots commençant par ou se terminant par des lettres de votre choix. Anne unsuccessfully tried to preserve Breton independence, but she died in 1514, and the union between the two crowns was formally carried out by Francis I in 1532. Quimper faience is known worldwide for its bowls and plates painted by hand, and other towns, such as Pornic, also maintain a similar tradition. Mots commençant par la lettre R. Nombre de mots commencant par la lettre r: 36893. It is stronger among employees than employers.[63]. Nantes, nicknamed "the city of the Dukes of Brittany", was also the permanent residence of the last dukes. La référence en recherche des sites Internet de qualité des départements du Finistere, Morbihan, Côtes d'armor, Ille et Vilaine et de Loire Atlantique. Catholic religion has started to decline after the Second World War, during the urbanisation of Brittany. The main companies are Brittany Ferries which operates lines between Plymouth and Roscoff, Portsmouth and Saint-Malo, and Roscoff and Cork. The Museum of Fine Arts of Rennes owns a large collection of Egyptian, Greek and Roman antiquities as well as drawings and engravings by Domenico Ghirlandaio, Parmigianino, Albrecht Dürer and Rembrandt. [34] Brittany is also divided between Lower Brittany ("Basse Bretagne" and "Breizh Izel"), corresponding to the western half, where Breton is traditionally spoken, and Upper Brittany ("Haute Bretagne" and "Breizh Uhel"), corresponding to the eastern half, where Gallo is traditionally spoken. Some Pardons are reputed for their length, and they all finish by large meals and popular feasts. These highways are standard French toll road. André Breton, Nadja I) Auteur (1896-1966) Etudiant en médecine, il travaille dans un service psychiatrique pendant la guerre et s’initie aux théories de Freud. Racine, Radieuse, Radote, Rafale, Ragosse, Rainette, Ramdam, Ramille, Rasade, Rase-mottes, Ratafia, Ravenelle, Ravigote, Razzia, Récolte, Récompense, Récréation, Recto, Redoux, Régate, Régente, Réglisse, Reine-des-Prés, Relaxe, Reliure, Rémoulade, Renaissance, Rengaine, Renommée, Renoncule, Rentière, Réplique, République, Requiem, Résine, Respect, Ressource, Retable, Rêverie, Révérence, Rétro, Rhéa, Rhodes, Rhubarbe, Ria, Ribambelle, Ricotta, Rieuse, Riga, Rigole, Rime, Riquiqui, Ritournelle, Rituelle, Rivale, Rivière, Robine, Robuste, Rocaille, Rocheuse, Rococo, Romaine, Romance, Romarin, Rome, Ronce, Ronde, Roquette, Rosace, Rosalie, Rosée, Roseval, Roturière, Rouge, Rouille, Roulette, Roumanie, Royale, Rubiconde, Rubis, Ruche, Rurale, Rusée, Russie, Rustique, Rutabaga, Rutilante. They are known as the "Seven founder saints": Other notable early missionaries are Gildas and the Irish saint Columbanus. Until the end of the 20th century, Brittany had been characterised by a strong Catholic and conservative influence. Sûrement la race la plus connues des trois et une des races française les plus répandues dans le monde. Contemporary architecture blended with Costa Rica all orchestrated by a French builder with an eye for detail. Museums in Saint-Malo, Lorient and Douarnenez are dedicated to ships and maritime traditions and history. [22], During the 3rd century AD, the region was attacked several times by Franks, Alamanni and pirates. The communes and the départements have a local council elected by their citizens, but arrondissements and cantons are not run by elected officials. For aiding in removing problem Alan paid homage to Louis IV of France (who was Æthelstan's nephew and had returned from England in the same year as Alan II) and thus Brittany ceased to be a kingdom and became a duchy. For the current French administrative region, see, Union with the French Crown and modern period, Presumably this soldier was in the employ of. The Alans were placed front and centre, opposite the Huns. There are ferry services that take passengers, vehicles and freight to Ireland, the United Kingdom and the Channel Islands. Recherche - Définition. Headquartered in Castello di Godego, Italy, but active worldwide, Breton S.p.A. has more than 900 employees, 7 foreign branches and 200 million euros of annual turnover. A mayor eventually asked the university to be relocated to Rennes, more devoted to culture and science, and the faculties progressively moved there after 1735. The arrondissements are further divided in cantons, which are themselves made up of one or several communes. The Palets, common in Upper Brittany and in other French regions, is also related to pétanque, but players use iron disks instead of balls and they have to throw them on a wooden board. It hosts some of France's biggest contemporary music festivals, such as La Route du Rock in Saint-Malo, the Vieilles Charrues in Carhaix, the Rencontres Trans Musicales in Rennes, the Festival du Bout du Monde in Crozon, the Hellfest in Clisson and the Astropolis in Brest. The Kan ha diskan is the most common type of singing. Brittany is on two major TGV lines, one linking Paris to Nantes and Le Croisic, on the south coast, and another linking Paris to Rennes and Brest. Nonetheless, she married the Holy Roman Emperor in 1490, leading to a crisis with France. [54] It was lower than the French result, 29,897 euros, but higher than the European one, 23,500 euros. The region is generally hilly because it corresponds to the western end of the Armorican Massif, a very old range that also extends in Normandy and the Pays de la Loire region. At that time, local writers started to collect and publish local tales and legends and wrote original works. Gallo was simply felt to be an incorrect way of speaking French rather than a separate language. Où allez-vous ? Changes in sea levels and climate led to a strong erosion and to the formation of more sedimentary rocks. An extensive network of cycle paths and recommended cycle routes has opened up all over the region. Their only original feature was a distinct culture, called "Colombanian". Both have been recognised as "Langues de Bretagne" (languages of Brittany) by the Regional Council of Brittany since 2004. Tous les mots de ce site sont dans le dictionnaire officiel du scrabble (ODS). [62], A 2012 poll taken in the five departments of historical Brittany showed that 48% of the respondents considered themselves belonging first to France, 37% to Brittany, and 10% to Europe. Recherche - Solution. Some politicians like Jean-Marc Ayrault, the French prime minister and former mayor of Nantes, favour instead the creation of a "Greater West region", which would encompass Brittany and the Pays de la Loire region. Cereals are mostly grown for cattle feeding. The kingdom lost its eastern territories, including Normandy and Anjou, and the county of Nantes was given to Fulk I of Anjou in 909. It has a changeable, maritime climate, similar to Cornwall. A variety of seabirds can be seen close to the seaside, which is home to colonies of cormorants, gulls, razorbills, northern gannets, common murres and Atlantic puffins. Major churches include Saint-Pol-de-Léon Cathedral, Tréguier Cathedral, Dol Cathedral, Nantes Cathedral and the Kreisker chapel. Among them, the "Pardons" are one of the most traditional demonstrations of popular Catholicism. Several Breton towns still have their medieval walls, such as Guérande, Concarneau, Saint-Malo, Vannes, Fougères and Dinan. All these towns except Vannes are located in Upper Brittany, thus not in the Breton speaking area. PRESENTATION DE L’OUVRAGE Auteur : David Le Breton (Né en 1953) est un professeur de sociologie, université de Strasbourg. The French government and local politicians also feared that Nantes, because of its population and its former Breton capital status, would have maintained a harmful competition with Rennes to get the regional institutions and investments. Among all these towns, only Nantes, Rennes and Vannes, which were the biggest ones, could really pretend to the capital status. At the same time, the local economy collapsed and many farming estates were abandoned. Brittany, apart from some areas such as Lorient, Nantes and Saint-Nazaire, has never been heavily industrialised. The largest cities in Region Brittany as of 2017 were Rennes, with 216,815 inhabitants, Brest 140,064, Quimper 62,985, Lorient 57,149, Vannes 53,352, Saint-Malo 46,097 and Saint-Brieuc 44,372. While most of the metropolitan areas are growing, the cities themselves tend to stagnate or regress, such as for Brest, Lorient, Saint-Brieuc and Saint-Malo. Brittany also has a dish similar to the pot-au-feu known as the kig ha farz, which consists of stewed pork or beef with buckwheat dumplings. [46] In response, the Diwan schools were founded in 1977 to teach Breton by immersion. Un prénoms breton pour votre chien peut être parfaitement indiqué s'il est d'une des races originaire de Bretagne. The GDP of the Loire-Atlantique département is around 26 billion euros, and the GDP of the five historical Breton départements would be at around 108 billion euros. Nonetheless, the region was also modernising, with new roads and railways being built, and some places being industrialised. Since the early 1970s, Brittany has experienced a tremendous revival of its folk music. In Saint-Nazaire, where many transatlantic ships were built, including SS Normandie and SS France, a museum showing transatlantic interiors was installed in a Second World War base. A minority, 1.5%, considers itself Breton but not French, while 9.3% do not consider themselves to be Breton at all. Brittany lost 240,000 men during the First World War. It also has a strong ecological orientation. Joël Cornette, Le marquis et le Régent. Famously, signs in schools read: "It is forbidden to speak Breton and to spit on the floor" ("Il est interdit de parler Breton et de cracher par terre").[31]. The Breton subsoil is characterised by a huge amount of fractures that form a large aquifer containing several millions square meters of water. Several towns also organise historical re-enactments and events celebrating local traditions, such as the Filets Bleus in Concarneau which celebrates fishing. [82] .bzh is an approved Internet top level domain for the Breton culture and languages. Alan II totally expelled the Vikings from Brittany and recreated a strong Breton state. KLT speakers pronounce it [brɛjs] and would write it Breiz, while the Vannetais speakers pronounce it [brɛχ] and would write it Breih. Scholars such as Léon Fleuriot have suggested a two-wave model of migration from Britain which saw the emergence of an independent Breton people and established the dominance of the Brythonic Breton language in Armorica. BZH is a common abbreviation for "Breizh" ("Brittany" in Breton) and people often put BZH stickers on their car-plates, although it is forbidden under French laws. Another major Breton legend is the story about Ys, a city swallowed by the ocean. Its French art collection gathers works by Georges de La Tour, François Boucher, Paul Gauguin, Auguste Rodin, Camille Corot and Robert Delaunay. It is bordered to the north by the English Channel, to the south by the Bay of Biscay and the waters located between the western coast and Ushant Island form the Iroise Sea. Architecture from the 20th century can be seen in Saint-Nazaire, Brest and Lorient, three cities destroyed during the Second World War and rebuilt afterwards, and in the works of the Breton nationalist architects like James Bouillé and Olier Mordrel. Young artisanal brewers are keeping a variety of beer types alive,[74] such as Coreff de Morlaix, Tri Martolod and Britt. On one hand, children were not allowed to speak Breton at school, and were punished by teachers if they did. Most of these birds breed on isolated islands and rocks and thus are hard to observe. Découvrez les bonnes réponses, synonymes et autres mots utiles [29] These included many sailors such as Armand de Kersaint and soldiers such as Charles Armand Tuffin, marquis de la Rouërie. The activity employs around 9,000 people, and more than 60 firms work in fish and seafood processing. The Seiz Breur movement, created in 1923, permitted a Breton artistic revival[32] but its ties with Nazism and the collaborationism of the Breton National Party during World War II weakened Breton nationalism in the post-war period. The obstacles to reunification are the same as in 1956: having Nantes in Brittany could harm the position of Rennes and create an economic imbalance between Lower and Upper Brittany. Irish Ferries operates the route Rosslare-Roscoff and Condor Ferries link Saint-Malo with Jersey. During the 17th century, it had around 1,500 students. From the 15th to the 18th century, Brittany reached an economic golden age. The Romans also built three major roads through the region. Saint-Malo then was known for its corsairs, Brest was a major base for the French Navy and Nantes flourished with the Atlantic slave trade. Gilles Ménage écrit dans son Dictionnaire étymologique de la langue françoise (1750) à l'article baragouin : . Although Muscadet and Gros Plant white wines are produced south of the Loire, the traditional drink of Brittany is cider. Västeråss stad som självskadebeteende kristet or a measured. Before them, Brittany had also been visited by Academic and Romantic painters like Jean Antoine Théodore de Gudin and Jules Achille Noël who were looking for dramatic seascapes and storms. Local seaports like Brest and Saint-Brieuc quickly expanded, and Lorient, first spelled "L'Orient", was founded in the 17th century. Medieval Brittany was far from being a united nation. Gallo is spoken on the eastern half of Brittany. Vannes, on its side, was the seat of the Chamber of Accounts and of the Parliament until the union with France. La notion d’utilisation de bois local est intéressante. The Breton language has several dialects which have no precise limits but rather form a continuum. They all had a grid plan and a forum, and sometimes a temple, a basilica, thermae or an aqueduct, like Carhaix. The Lann-Bihoué bagad, one of the most well-known, belongs to the French Navy. Slates and reeds were usually used for roofing. The two port towns had been virtually destroyed by Allied air raids, like Brest and Saint-Malo, and other towns, such as Nantes and Rennes, had also suffered. The oldest dances seem to be the passepied and the gavotte, and the newest ones derive from the quadrille and French Renaissance dances. They were often called "pays" or "bro" ("country" in French and Breton) and they also served as fiscal and military districts. Les textes sont disponibles sous licence Creative Commons attribution partage à l’identique ; d’autres termes peuvent s’appliquer. The region is notable for its biscuit factories, many towns having their own: Quimper, Lorient, Pont-Aven, Saint-Brieuc, BN and LU in Nantes, La Trinitaine in La Trinité-sur-Mer, and Galettes Saint-Michel in Saint-Michel-Chef-Chef. In response to a plea from the Roman Emperor Anthemius, Riothamus had led twelve thousand men to establish a military presence in Bourges in central Gaul, but was betrayed by Arvandus, the Praetorian Prefect of Gaul, and subsequently ambushed by Euric's army. [d] The region was located on the seaways near Spain, England and the Netherlands and it greatly benefited from the creation of a French colonial empire. The Romans called Brittany Armorica. Contemporary sculptures can be seen in the park around the Château de Kerguéhennec, in Bignan. The Saint-Brieuc – Armor airport serves flights between Brittany and the Channel Islands. Sailing is particularly important for sea-resorts like La Trinité-sur-Mer, Pornichet, Concarneau, Lorient and the îles de Glénan, where a prestigious school is located. Laridé signifiant qui pleure en breton — Solutions pour Mots fléchés et mots croisés. Brittany is also the birthplace of many French writers like François-René de Chateaubriand, Jules Verne, Ernest Renan, Félicité Robert de Lamennais and Pierre Abélard Max Jacob, Alfred Jarry, Victor Segalen, Xavier Grall, Jean Rouaud, Irène Frain, Herve Jaouen,[72] Alain Robbe-Grillet, Pierre-Jakez Hélias, Tristan Corbière, Paul Féval, Jean Guéhenno, Arthur Bernède, André Breton, Patrick Poivre d'Arvor. 21% of the respondents over 65 considering themselves to be European first. Brittany is the first producer in France for vegetables (green beans, onions, artichokes, potatoes, tomatoes...). Brittany had 3.2 million inhabitants in 1962 and the growth was mainly due to Loire-Atlantique and the steady growth of Nantes. Avant de partir, pensez à vous inscrire Metamorphism is responsible for the distinctive local blue schist and for the rich subsoil of the Groix island, which comprises glaucophane and epidote. [14], Breton-speaking people may pronounce the word Breizh in two different ways, according to their region of origin. It also provides a link to southern Normandy, terminating in Paris. Mais pour de grands bâtiments, cela ne s’improvise pas. [58] Nevertheless, since the 1990s, Rennes has consistently ranked as one of France's fastest growing metropolitan areas. En direct du blog: Le breton : chronique d’un combat pour sauver une langue « Il est interdit de parler breton ou de cracher par terre ». Hop hop hop ! Explore all Cape Breton real estate with RE/MAX, Canada's #1 Real Estate Brand. During the 19th century, Brittany remained in economic recession, and many Bretons emigrated to other French regions, particularly to Paris. They are however rarely known by the population and signs in Gallo are often unreadable, even for fluent speakers. TER Pays de la Loire operates trains between Nantes and smaller towns in Loire-Atlantique. Because the départements are small and numerous, the French government tried to create wider regions during the 20th century. [75] More than 10,000 km of motorways were built, permitting Breton road transport to multiply by four. However, Colbertism, which encouraged the creation of many factories, did not favour the Breton industry because most of the royal factories were opened in other provinces. The French Renaissance occurred when Brittany lost its independence. Museums dedicated to Prehistory and local megaliths are located in Carnac and Penmarch, while several towns like Vannes and Nantes have a museum presenting their own history. During the 20th century, tertiary education was developed with the creation of the École centrale de Nantes in 1919, the University of Nantes in 1961, the ESC Bretagne Brest in 1962, the University of Western Brittany in 1971, the École Nationale Supérieure des Télécommunications de Bretagne in 1977 and the University of Southern Brittany in 1995. In 1956, Brittany was legally reconstituted as the Region of Brittany, although the region excluded the ducal capital of Nantes and the surrounding area. Another regional park encompasses the Monts d'Arrée and the Iroise seacoast. Coastal areas are usually named Armor or Arvor ("by the sea" in Breton), and the inland is called Argoat ("by the forest"). During the French Revolution, Brittany was divided into five départements, each made up of three or four arrondissements. For the Breton nationalists, it was an occasion to recreate Brittany as a political and administrative entity, but the new region had to be economically efficient. Several Bretons have won the Tour de France: Bernard Hinault, Louison Bobet, Jean Robic and Lucien Petit-Breton as riders, and Cyrille Guimard as a directeur sportif. Their support for each nation became very important during the 14th century because the English kings had started to claim the French throne. On one hand, the region, due to its long coastline, has a rich oceanic fauna, and some birds cannot be seen in other French regions. ", "Tableaux de l'économie française, Édition 2020, Villes et communes de France", "Official website of the French Government Tourist Office: Brittany", "Bertaèyn Galeizz change de nom. TER Bretagne also manages coach lines and connections between Rennes and Nantes. The French president Charles de Gaulle implemented a major road construction plan in the 1970 and Brittany received over 10 billion francs of investments during 25 years. It is around 34,030 km2 (13,140 sq mi) and stretches toward the northwest and the Atlantic Ocean. Brittany is also known for its salt, mainly harvested around Guérande and used in butter and milk caramels. The foreign policy of the Duchy changed many times; the Dukes were usually independent, but they often contracted alliances with England or France depending on who was threatening them at that point. At the beginning of the medieval era, Brittany was divided among three kingdoms, Domnonea, Cornouaille and Broërec. In 2002, the Tro Breizh included a special pilgrimage to Wales, symbolically making the reverse journey of the Welshmen Sant Paol, Sant Brieg, and Sant Samzun. The most famous are Ar Men, Phare d'Eckmühl, La Vieille and La Jument. Only a small number of statues depicting Roman gods were found in Brittany, and most of the time they combine Celtic elements. The lighthouse on the Île Vierge is, with 77 meters, the highest in Europe. In 1851, Brittany had around 2.7 million inhabitants and the demographic growth stayed low until the second half of the 20th century, mainly because of an important emigration. In Lower Brittany, the medieval style never totally disappeared. Brittany also lost all its privileges. Without the Loire-Atlantique's figures, the Breton population only numbered 2.4 million in 1962, nearly unchanged from its population of 2.3 million in 1851. When it was an independent duchy, the Estates of Brittany, which can be compared to a parliament, met in various towns: Dinan, Ploërmel, Redon, Rennes, Vitré, Guérande, and, most of all, Vannes, where they met 19 times, and Nantes, 17 times.