Elle se déroule de 1642 à 1651 sous le règne de Charles I . [76], Two weeks after the King had raised his standard at Nottingham, Essex led his army north towards Northampton,[77] picking up support along the way (including a detachment of Huntingdonshire cavalry raised and commanded by Oliver Cromwell). [51] Strafford was beheaded two days later. La première révolution d'Angleterre (1642-1649) mit fin au règne de Charles Ier et établit, sous la direction de Cromwell, un régime républicain, le " Commonwealth ". The republican government of the Commonwealth of England ruled England (and later all of Scotland and Ireland) from 1649 to 1653 and from 1659 to 1660. The king was pressured to re-establish Parliament, because his economic measures were not strong enough to generate money on their own. [41], Without Parliament's support, Charles attacked Scotland again, breaking the truce at Berwick, and suffered comprehensive defeat. Specifically, future monarchs became wary of pushing Parliament too hard, and Parliament effectively chose the line of royal succession in 1688 with the Glorious Revolution and in the 1701 Act of Settlement. Literature and revolution in England, 1640-1660. After the regicide, Charles as the eldest son was publicly proclaimed King Charles II in the Royal Square of St. Helier, Jersey, on 17 February 1649 (after a first such proclamation in Edinburgh on 5 February 1649). [citation needed]. His unilateral actions were one of the main causes of the uprising that led to a nine-year hiatus in the British monarchy. The Whig view was challenged and largely superseded by the Marxist school, which became popular in the 1940s, and saw the English Civil War as a bourgeois revolution. [157] His coronation took place at Westminster Abbey on 23 April 1661. In 1660, in what is known as the English Restoration, General George Monck met with Charles and arranged to restore him in exchange for a promise of amnesty and religious toleration for … [33] Moreover, the Church authorities revived statutes from the time of Elizabeth I about church attendance and fined Puritans for not attending Anglican services.[34]. [149] The old status quo began a retrenchment after the end of the First Civil War in 1646, and more especially after the Restoration in 1660, but some gains were long-term. Some scholars suggest that Behemoth has not received its due as an academic work, being comparatively overlooked and under-rated in the shadow of Hobbes' Leviathan. Fairfax, after his success at Maidstone and the pacification of Kent, turned north to reduce Essex, where, under an ardent, experienced and popular leader, Sir Charles Lucas, the Royalists had taken up arms in great numbers. After a series of countless differences between the king and the new Parliament, Charles I went with 400 soldiers to where the Parliament was meeting. Pym immediately launched a Bill of Attainder stating Strafford's guilt and demanding that he be put to death. For a monarch, Parliament's most indispensable power was its ability to raise tax revenues far in excess of all other sources of revenue at the Crown's disposal. [151] After seven months the Army removed Richard, and in May 1659 it re-installed the Rump. Un nouveau régime est alors mis en place, le Commonwealth. Historical records count 84,830 dead from the wars themselves. [67] Charles issued a warrant for Hotham's arrest as a traitor but was powerless to enforce it. Pendant cette période, les … Counting in accidents and the two Bishops' wars, an estimate of 190,000 dead is achieved,[143] out of a total population of about five million. The views of the members of Parliament ranged from unquestioning support of the King — at one point during the First Civil War, more members of the Commons and Lords gathered in the King's Oxford Parliament than at Westminster — through to radicals who sought major reforms in religious independence and redistribution of power at a national level. [131], Charles II landed in Scotland at Garmouth in Morayshire on 23 June 1650[132] and signed the 1638 National Covenant and the 1643 Solemn League and Covenant shortly after coming ashore. The Scots went on to invade England, occupying Northumberland and Durham. Il s’agit d’une série de conflits entre les forces des parlementaires et des royalistes. [24] Several more active members of the opposition were imprisoned, which caused outrage;[24] one, John Eliot, subsequently died in prison and came to be seen as a martyr for the rights of Parliament.[25]. Parliament's strengths spanned the industrial centres, ports, and economically advanced regions of southern and eastern England, including the remaining cathedral cities (except York, Chester, Worcester). As Charles shared his father's position on the power of the crown (James had described kings as "little gods on Earth", chosen by God to rule in accordance with the doctrine of the "Divine Right of Kings"), the suspicions of the Parliamentarians had some justification.[16]. [141] The Church of England remained Presbyterian until the Restoration of the monarchy under Charles II in 1660. [11] Trained to operate as a single unit, it went on to win many decisive victories.[14]. He took Leicester, which lies between them, but found his resources exhausted. [20], Having dissolved Parliament and unable to raise money without it, the king assembled a new one in 1628. 495-498. During this time the rebel troops occupied two English provinces. Loading... Unsubscribe from mllebaril? Glorious Revolution, events of 1688–89 that resulted in the deposition of English King James II and the accession of his daughter Mary II and her husband, William III, prince of Orange and stadholder of the Netherlands. The Parliament always had its reservations about Charles I. A body within the Puritan movement in the Church of England sought to abolish the office of bishop and remake the Church of England along Presbyterian lines. [126] As the former Member of Parliament Admiral Robert Blake blockaded Prince Rupert's fleet in Kinsale, Cromwell could land at Dublin on 15 August 1649 with an army to quell the Royalist alliance. [57] On 3 May, Parliament decreed The Protestation, attacking the 'wicked counsels' of Charles's government, whereby those who signed the petition undertook to defend 'the true reformed religion', Parliament, and the king's person, honour and estate. From 1646 to 1648 the breach between Army and Parliament widened day by day until finally the Presbyterian party, combined with the Scots and the remaining Royalists, felt itself strong enough to begin a Second Civil War. The Church of Scotland, reluctantly episcopal in structure, had independent traditions. [100], In 1645, Parliament reaffirmed its determination to fight the war to a finish. Guerre civile anglaise mllebaril. Once summoned, a Parliament's continued existence was at the king's pleasure since it was subject to dissolution by him at any time. This period was the first step to establish the superiority of the Parliament over the Crown, which became official 30 years later, after the Glorious Revolution of 1688. In February 1638, the Scots formulated their objections to royal policy in the National Covenant. In the same year, however, Cromwell formed his troop of "Ironsides", a disciplined unit that demonstrated his military leadership ability. Éditions Perrin, 2015, pp. Conversely, one of the leading drainage contractors, the Earl of Lindsey, was to die fighting for the King at the Battle of Edgehill. In the process, the representatives could debate and enact statutes, or acts. [73], The Parliamentarians who opposed the King did not remain passive in this pre-war period. These carried matchlock muskets, an inaccurate weapon which nevertheless could be lethal at a range of up to 300 yards. When the King failed to issue a proper summons, the members could assemble on their own. Hobbes analysed in turn the following aspects of English thought during the war: the opinions of divinity and politics that spurred rebellion; rhetoric and doctrine used by the rebels against the king; and how opinions about "taxation, the conscription of soldiers, and military strategy" affected the outcomes of battles and shifts of sovereignty.[168]. By the early 1640s, Charles was left in a state of near-permanent crisis management, confounded by the demands of the various factions. The parliamentarians' side also had forces from other kingdoms of the British Isles, … [80], Rupert withdrew to Shrewsbury, where a council-of-war discussed two courses of action: whether to advance towards Essex's new position near Worcester, or march down the now open road towards London. So the civil wars effectively set England and Scotland on course towards a parliamentary monarchy form of government. With their assistance he won a victory at the Battle of Gainsborough in July. He took advantage of the precarious situation he was going through to pass several laws that hurt the then king. Parliament had not approved this move of the king, which triggered a civil war between both sides. In the early 19th century, Sir Walter Scott referred to it as "the Great Civil War". From this conflict, Scotland, England, Wales and Ireland have not had confidence in the military movements of neighboring nations. Charles, still incensed over the Commons' handling of Buckingham, refused his assent. Built-up inside the natural defence of a nearly impassable barrier reef, to fend off the might of Spain, these defences were too powerful for the Parliamentary fleet sent in 1651 under the command of Admiral Sir George Ayscue, which was forced instead to blockade Bermuda for several months 'til the Bermudians negotiated a separate peace that respected the internal status quo. [148], Ordinary people took advantage of the dislocation of civil society in the 1640s to gain personal advantages. He believed in High Anglicanism, a sacramental version of the Church of England, theologically based upon Arminianism, a creed shared with his main political adviser, Archbishop William Laud. The first to be so called—by Whig historians—was the Glorious Revolution of 1688, whereby James II was replaced by William III and Mary II as monarch and a constitutional monarchy was established. Nearly all the Royalists who had fought in the First Civil War had given their word not to bear arms against Parliament, and many, like Lord Astley, were therefore bound by oath not to take any part in the second conflict. [166], Thomas Hobbes gave a much earlier historical account of the English Civil War in his Behemoth, written in 1668 and published in 1681. However, Parliament did attempt to avert conflict by requiring all adults to sign The Protestation, an oath of allegiance to Charles.[c]. This had the desired effect of forcing Essex to move to intercept them. [114] Parliamentary authorities sentenced the leaders of the Welsh rebels, Major-General Rowland Laugharne, Colonel John Poyer and Colonel Rice Powel to death, but executed only Poyer (25 April 1649), having selected him by lot. Charles avoided calling a Parliament for the next decade, a period known as the "personal rule of Charles I", or the "Eleven Years' Tyranny". [15] Many English Parliamentarians were suspicious of such a move, fearing that such a new kingdom might destroy old English traditions that had bound the English monarchy. [54][55] The Triennial Act required Parliament to be summoned at least once in three years. [41] Its majority faction, led by John Pym, used this appeal for money as a chance to discuss grievances against the Crown and oppose the idea of an English invasion of Scotland. [120][121] His beheading took place on a scaffold in front of the Banqueting House of the Palace of Whitehall on 30 January 1649. [140] A second Committee of Safety then replaced it. Matters came to a head when Charles I appointed William Laud as Archbishop of Canterbury; Laud aggressively attacked the Presbyterian movement and sought to impose the full Book of Common Prayer. [81], The first pitched battle of the war, at Edgehill on 23 October 1642, proved inconclusive, both Royalists and Parliamentarians claiming victory. Great Britain -- History -- Puritan Revolution, 1642-1660 -- Congresses. For example, a failure to attend and receive knighthood at Charles's coronation became a finable offence with the fine paid to the Crown. We use cookies to provide our online service. The conflicts also involved wars with Scotland and Ireland, and civil wars within them. [89], At this stage, from 7 to 9 August 1643, there were some popular demonstrations in London — both for and against war. In the wake of victory, many of the ideals (and many idealists) became sidelined. The vestments controversy also related to this movement, seeking further reductions in church ceremony, and labelling the use of elaborate vestments as "unedifying" and even idolatrous.